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Table 3 Distribution of putative virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from various types of milk and dairy products

From: Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products in Iran

Type of samples (n. positive) Distribution of virulence factors (%)
vacA cagA iceA oipA
Bovine raw milk (20) 15 (75) 14 (70) 10 (50) 8 (40)
Ovine raw milk (25) 22 (88) 23 (92) 12 (48) 5 (20)
Caprine raw milk (28) 25 (89.2) 27 (96.4) 14 (50) 10 (35.7)
Buffalo raw milk (12) 9 (75) 10 (83.3) 4 (33.3) 2 (16.6)
Camel raw milk (8) 5 (62.5) 5 (62.5) 2 (25) 1 (12.5)
Donkey raw milk (−)
Total milk (103) 76 (73.7) 79 (76.6)A* 42 (40.7) 26 (25.2)a
Traditional cheese (30) 26 (86.6) 26 (86.6) 15 (50) 8 (26.6)
Traditional cream (15) 10 (66.6) 11 (73.3) 7 (46.6) 4 (26.6)
Traditional butter (5) 3 (60) 3 (60) 1 (20)
Traditional ice cream (27) 20 (74) 19 (70.3) 10 (37) 7 (25.9)
Total dairy products (77) 59 (76.6) 59 (76.6)B 33 (42.8)b 19 (24.6)b
Total (180) 135 (75) 138 (76.6)C 75 (41.6) 45 (25)c
  1. *The same small and capital letters in rows indicate significant differences about p <0.05.