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Table 4 Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from various types of milk and dairy products

From: Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products in Iran

Type of samples (n. positive) Antibiotic resistance (%)
METR5 AM10 CLRT2 ERT5 TE30 AMX10 FZL1 Lev5 TRP25 Cef30
Bovine raw milk (20) 15 (75) 18 (90) 4 (20) 17 (85) 17 (85) 15 (75) 3 (15) 4 (20) 8 (40) 5 (25)
Ovine raw milk (25) 19 (76) 22 (88) 5 (20) 19 (76) 20 (80) 16 (64) 4 (16) 5 (20) 6 (24) 6 (24)
Caprine raw milk (28) 21 (75) 25 (89.2) 6 (21.4) 20 (71.4) 22 (78.5) 19 (67.8) 4 (14.2) 4 (14.2) 10 (35.7) 6 (21.4)
Buffalo raw milk (12) 9 (75) 10 (83.3) 3 (25) 8 (66.6) 9 (75) 9 (75) 2 (16.6) 2 (16.6) 5 (25) 3 (25)
Camel raw milk (8) 6 (75) 8 (100) 1 (12.5) 7 (87.5) 8 (100) 6 (75) 2 (25) 1 (12.5)
Donkey raw milk (−)
Total milk (103) 70 (67.9)B 83 (80.5)A* 18 (17.4)a,b 71 (68.9) 76 (73.7)C 65 (63.1) 13 (12.6)a,c 11 (10.6)a,b,c 31 (30) 21 (20.3)a
Traditional cheese (30) 23 (76.6) 26 (86.6) 6 (20) 22 (73.3) 25 (83.3) 21 (70) 6 (30) 5 (16.6) 15 (50) 7 (23.3)
Traditional cream (15) 10 (66.6) 13 (86.6) 3 (20) 11 (73.3) 12 (80) 10 (66.6) 2 (13.3) 2 (3.33) 6 (40) 4 (26.6)
Traditional butter (5) 3 (60) 5 (100) 2 (40) 2 (40) 2 (40) 1 (20) 1 (20)
Traditional ice cream (27) 20 (74.0) 25 (92.5) 5 (18.5) 21 (77.7) 23 (85.1) 19 (70.3) 4 (14.8) 5 (18.5) 8 (29.6) 5 (18.5)
Total dairy products (77) 56 (72.7)C 69 (89.6)A 14 (18.1)c 56 (72.7) 62 (80.5)B 52 (67.5) 12 (15.5)b 12 (15.5)a,b,c 30 (38.9) 17 (22)a
Total (180) 126 (70) 152 (84.4)A 32 (17.7)a,c 127 (70.5)C 138 (76.6)B 117 (65) 25 (13.8) 23 (12.7)a,b,c 61 (38.8) 38 (21.1)a,b
  1. METR5: metronidazole (5 μg/disk); AM10: ampicillin (10 μg/disk); CLRT2: clarithromycin (2 μg/disk); ERT5: erythromycin (5 μg/disk); TE30: tetracycline (30 μg/disk); AMX10: amoxicillin (10 μg/disk); FZL1: furazolidone (1 μg/disk); Lev5: levofloxacin (5 μg/disk); TRP25: trimethoprim (25 μg/disk); Cef30: cefsulodin (30 μg/disk).
  2. **The same small and capital letters in rows have significant differences of p <0.05.