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Table 2 Premedication used in antivenom treatment

From: Antivenom therapy: efficacy of premedication for the prevention of adverse reactions

Drug Possible adverse reaction Mechanism Involved Clinical trial efficacy
Adrenaline Anaphylactic
Non IgE anaphylactic
Strong actions that directly oppose the effects triggered by mast cell and basophil activation.
Vasoconstrictor and cardiac stimulant.
Glucocorticoids Anaphylactic
Non IgE anaphylactic
Serum sickness
Phospholipase A and cyclooxygenase inhibition.
Mast cell membrane stabilization.
General immunosuppressant effects
Antihistamines Non IgE anaphylactic Reduce or block the actions of histamine by reversible competitive binding to the H1 receptor Noa
  1. aGlucocorticoids and antihistamines alone did not show efficacy but two trials show some efficacy using hydrocortisone together with an antihistamine