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Table 1 Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with Deinagkistrodon acutus and Daboia siamensis envenomation

From: Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing between Deinagkistrodon acutus and Daboia siamensis envenomation

  Deinagkistrodon acutus (n = 15) Daboia siamensis (n = 12) P value
Age 47.7 ± 13.81 55.0 ± 10.06 0.140
Male gender 14 (93.3) 9 (75.0) 0.294
Season
 Summer & fall 14 (93.3) 6 (50.0) 0.024
 Winter and spring 1 (6.7) 6 (50.0)  
Bite area
 Upper limbs 10 (66.7) 10 (83.3) 0.408
 Lower limbs 5 (33.3) 2 (16.7)  
Operation 8 (53.3) 0 (0) 0.003
Local signs
 Swelling 15 (100) 12 (100) 1.000
 Ecchymosis 9 (60) 4 (33.3) 0.252
 Hemorrhagic bulla 8 (53.3) 0 (0) 0.003
Time to arrive hospital (hr) 2.0 (1–7.5) 7.5 (1–12) 0.373
Total dose of antivenom (vial) 6.0 (4–10) 4.0 (4–6) 0.067
Duration of hospitalization (day) 5.0 (2–27) 3.0 (2–7) 0.183
ED laboratory data:
 WBC (× 103/μL) 10.3 ± 2.98 12.1 ± 3.90 0.187
 Hb (g/dL) 14.1 ± 2.77 14.0 ± 1.39 0.889
 PLT (× 103/μL) 20.0 (14–66) 149.0 (102.3–274.3) 0.001
 PT (sec) 100.0 (100–100) 75.0 (11–100) 0.025
 aPTT (sec) 150.0 (25–191) (n = 14) 29.0 (25–160) 0.118
 Fibrinogen (g/L) 0.5 (0.25–0.93) (n = 13) 0.5 (0.25–0.95) 0.689
 D-dimer (μg/L) 1423.4 (713.4–4212.3) (n = 12) 12,500.0 (2351.4–200,000.0) 0.008
 DIC score 7.0 (5–7) 5.5 (4–6) 0.041
 AST (IU/L) 29.0 (22–35) 36.0 (24–101) (n = 11) 0.330
 ALT (IU/L) 22.0 (18.0–44.5) (n = 13) 25.0 (20–38) 0.852
 BUN (mg/dL) 14.0 (10.8–19.5) (n = 14) 17.0 (12.5–30.8) 0.193
 CRE (mg/dL) 0.9 (0.78–1.33) (n = 14) 1.2 (0.93–2.38) 0.118
 CK (IU/L) 242.0 (213.5–748.0) (n = 13) 487.0 (257–1444.5) (n = 9) 0.186
  1. Values shown are n (%) or mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CK creatine kinase, CRE creatinine. DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, Hb hemoglobin, PLT platelet count, PT prothrombin time, WBC white blood cell count