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Table 2 Examples of compounds from Brazilian spider venoms

From: Arachnids of medical importance in Brazil: main active compounds present in scorpion and spider venoms and tick saliva

Compounds Examples Species Molecular Mass (kDa) Action Mechanism References
Neurotoxins PnTx1,PnTx2, PnTx3 Phoneutria nigriventer ~6.0–9.0 Act on ion channels 72
PnTx4 Phoneutria nigriventer 5.17 Inhibit reversible NMDA receptors in insects 73
α-latrotoxin Latrodectus sp. ~130 Influx of Ca2+ on presynaptic nerve endings 74
Enzymes Phospholipase D Loxosceles sp. ~31.0–32.0 Hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids 75
(Sphingomyelinase)
Hyaluronidase Loxosceles sp. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan from the extracellular matrix 76
Proteinases Metalloproteinase Loxosceles sp. ~29.0 Lysis of the cell basement membrane 77
Serinoproteinases Loxosceles sp. ~85–95.0 Action on coagulation factors 78