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Table 2 Clinical findings

From: FabAV antivenin use after copperhead snakebite: clinically indicated or knee-jerk reaction?

Bite location Total (318) FabAV (44) No FabAV (274) p
  Upper (%) 130 (40.9 %) 35 (80 %) 95 (35 %) <0.0001
  Lower (%) 185 (58.2 %) 9 (20 %) 176 (64 %)  
  Torso 3 (<1 %) 0 3 (<1 %)  
Systemic symptoms     
Cardiovascular symptoms 31 (9.7 %) 8 (18.2 %) 23 (8.4 %) <0.05
Constitutional symptoms 24 (17.3 %) 5 (11.4 %) 19 (6.9 %) NS
Abnormal coagulation tests 75 (23.6 %) 13 (29.5 %) 62(22.6 %) NS
Local symptoms     
Numbness 19 (6.0 %) 4 (9.1 %) 15 (5.5 %) NS
Bruising 26 (8.2 %) 5 (11.4 %) 21 (7.7 %) NS
Erythema   112 (35.2 %) 16 (36.4 %) 96 (35.0 %) NS
Swelling – Degree     
  None (0) 50 (15.7 %) 1 (2.3 %) 49 (17.9 %) <0.005
  Mild (1) 235 (73.9 %) 34 (77.3 %) 201 (73.4 %)  
  Moderate (2) 33 (10.4 %) 9 (20.5 %) 24 (8.8 %)  
  Severe (3) 0 0 0  
  Median (IQR) 1 (1,1) 1 (1,1) 1 (1,1)  
Pain – Degree      
  Mild (1) 254 (79.9 %) 38 (86.4 %) 216 (78.9 %) NS
  Moderate (2) 49 (15.4 %) 3 (6.8 %) 46 (16.8 %)  
  Severe (3) 15 (4.7 %) 3 (6.8 %) 12 (4.4 %)  
  Median (IQR) 1 (1,1) 1 (1,1) 1 (1,1)