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Table 2 Characteristics of contryphans. Their amino acid sequences, respective species, observed activity and references are indicated

From: In the picture: disulfide-poor conopeptides, a class of pharmacologically interesting compounds

Peptide Amino acid sequence Species Activity Source
Contryphan-R GCOWEPWCa C. radiatus “Stiff-tail” syndrome in mice [20]
[des-Gly1]contryphan COWEPWCa C. radiatus “Stiff-tail” syndrome in mice [20]
Bromocontryphan-R GCOWEPW+Ca C. radiatus “Stiff-tail” syndrome in mice [21]
Contryphan-Sm GCOWQPWCa C. stercusmuscarum “Stiff-tail” syndrome in Webster mice [69]
Contryphan-P GCOWDPWCa C. purpurascens “Stiff-tail” syndrome in Swiss Webster mice/inhibits HVA Ca2+ channels [69]
Leu-contryphan-P GCVLLPWC C. purpurascens Body tremor and mucous secretion in fish [70]
Contryphan-Tx GCOWQPYCa C. textile “Stiff-tail” syndrome and paralysis of extremities in Swiss Webster mice [71]
Leu-contryphan-Tx CVLYPWC C. textile Folding and drooping of dorsal fins and passivity in Siamese fighting fish [71]
Contryphan-Vn GDCPWKPWCa C. ventricosus ? (VGPC, Ca2+ dependent) [24, 72]
Glacontryphan-M NγSγCPWHPWCa C. marmoreus Inhibits L-type VGCC [22, 73]
Am975 GCPWDPWCa C. amadis Inhibits HVA Ca2+ channels [25]
Lo959 GCOWDPWCa C. loroisii Activates HVA Ca2+ channels [25]
Contryphan-fia GCODWQPWC C. figulinus ? [74]
[W8S]contryphan-Vn GDCPWKPSCa C. ventricosus ? [75]
Contryphan-fib GCOWMPWCa C. figulinus ? [76]
  1. aC-terminal amidation; W+: 6-L-bromotryptophan; O: hydroxyproline; W: D-tryptophan; L: D-leucine; γ: gamma-carboxyglutamate; VGPC: voltage-gated potassium channel, VGCC: voltage-gated calcium channel, HVA: high voltage-activated