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Table 2 Examples of animal peptides presenting antiviral activity

From: Antiviral activity of animal venom peptides and related compounds

Source Species Peptide name Virus Action mechanism Reference
Frog Xenopus laevis Magainin 1 and 2 HSV-1 and HSV-2 Cellular target [115]
Frog Rana brevipodaporsa Brevinin-1 HSV Viral inactivation [116]
Frog Phyllomedusa Dermaseptin S4 HSV-2 Viral envelope disruption [69]
Frog Phyllomedusa Dermaseptin DS4 HIV-1 Viral envelope disruption [117]
Frog Dermaseptin S4 HSV-1 Viral membrane disruption [118]
Frog Litoria caerulea Caerin 1.1 HIV Viral envelope disruption [70]
Frog Litoria chloris Caerin 1.9 HIV Viral envelope disruption [70]
Frog Litoria genimaculata Maculatin 1.1 HIV Viral envelope disruption [70]
Insect Vespula lewisii MP7-NH2 HSV Viral envelope disruption [74]
Insect Apis mellifera Melittin HIV CXCR4 and CCR5 tropic inhibition
HIV-1 infectivity
[79]
Insect Synthetic (from melittin) Hecate HSV Cellular target [83]
Insect Bee venom bvPLA2 HIV Virion entry blocking into host cell [65]
Insect Synthetic (from bvPLA2) p3bv HIV HIV glycoprotein fusion inhibition to CXCR4 cell receptor [76]
Insect Calliphora vicina Alloferons 1 and 2 IAV/HSV Immunomodulatory activity [88]
Insect Hyalophora cecropia Cecropin A-magainin 2 HIV Virion entry blocking into host cell [85]
Ophidian Trimeresurus stejnegeri TSV-LAO HIV-1 Syncytium formation inhibition and HIV-1 p24 antigen reduction [60]
Ophidian Bothrops jararaca BjarLAAO-I DENV-3 Infected cells reduction [61]
Ophidian Crotalus durissus terrificus PLA2 -Cdt DENV, YFV Virus envelope cleavage and protein destabilization [48, 63]
    HIV Gag p24 processing inhibition [62, 64]
Ophidian Bothrops leucurus BlK-PLA2; BlD-PLA2 DENV Viral RNA levels reduction [65]
Ophidian Naja kaouthia (Naja siamensis) Immunokine HIV CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors interaction [7, 66]
Marine sponge Sidonops microspinosa Microspinosamide HIV Cytopathic effect inhibition [111]
Marine sponge Siliquariaspongia mirabilis and Stelletta clavosa Mirabamides A-H HIV Viral glycoprotein fusion neutralization to the cell receptors [94, 95]
Marine sponge Homophymia sp. Homophymine A HIV Virion entry inhibition [96]
Marine sponge Theonella sp. Papuamides A and B HIV Virion entry inhibition [106]
Marine sponge Theonella swinhoe Theopapuamide A HIV Virion entry inhibition [105, 106]
Marine sponge T. swinhoe and T. cupola Koshikamides F, H HIV Virion entry inhibition [104]
Marine sponge Siliquariaspongia mirabilis Theopapuamide B HIV Viral envelope disruption [108]
Marine sponge Siliquariaspongia mirabilis Celebesides A–C HIV Virion entry inhibition [108]
Marine sponge Callipelta sp. Callipeltin A HIV Virion entry inhibition [109]
Marine sponge Neamphius huxleyi Neamphamide A HIV Virion entry inhibition [110]
Horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus Polyphemusin HIV Chemokine receptor, CXCR4/viral co-receptor attachment [112]
Fish Pleuronectes americanus Pa-MAP HSV Viral envelope interaction [91, 92]
Tunicate Trididemnum solidum Didemnins A, B and C HSV-1 and 2; coxsackie virus A-21 and equine rhinovirus Protein, DNA and RNA synthesis inhibition [97]
  1. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HSV herpes simplex virus, IAV influenza virus, VSV vesicular stomatitis virus, DENV dengue virus. Adapted from Jenssen et al. [9] and Mulder et al. [77]