- Open Access
Cloning, structural modelling and characterization of VesT2s, a wasp venom hyaluronidase (HAase) from Vespa tropica
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 20 April 2016
Accepted: 29 September 2016
Published: 22 October 2016
Wasp venom is a complex mixture containing proteins, enzymes and small molecules, including some of the most dangerous allergens. The greater banded wasp (Vespa tropica) is well-known for its lethal venom, whose one of the major components is a hyaluronidase (HAase). It is believed that the high protein proportion and activity of this enzyme is responsible for the venom potency.
In the present study, cDNA cloning, sequencing and 3D-structure of Vespa tropica venom HAase were described. Anti-native HAase antibody was used for neutralization assay.
Two isoforms, VesT2a and VesT2b, were classified as members of the glycosidase hydrolase 56 family with high similarity (42–97 %) to the allergen venom HAase. VesT2a gene contained 1486 nucleotide residues encoding 357 amino acids whereas the VesT2b isoform consisted of 1411 residues encoding 356 amino acids. The mature VesT2a and VesT2b are similar in mass and pI after prediction. They are 39119.73 Da/pI 8.91 and 39571.5 Da/pI 9.38, respectively. Two catalytic residues in VesT2a, Asp107 and Glu109 were substituted in VesT2b by Asn, thus impeding enzymatic activity. The 3D-structure of the VesT2s isoform consisted of a central core (α/β)7 barrel and two disulfide bridges. The five putative glycosylation sites (Asn79, Asn99, Asn127, Asn187 and Asn325) of VesT2a and the three glycosylation sites (Asn1, Asn66 and Asn81) in VesT2b were predicted. An allergenic property significantly depends on the number of putative N-glycosylation sites. The anti-native HAase serum specifically recognized to venom HAase was able to neutralize toxicity of V. tropica venom. The ratio of venom antiserum was 1:12.
The wasp venom allergy is known to cause life-threatening and fatal IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Structural analysis was a helpful tool for prediction of allergenic properties including their cross reactivity among the vespid HAase.
Vespidae venom consists of complex mixtures of enzymes, proteins, peptides and small molecules responsible for many of the non-allergic and mild allergic reactions – such as local pain, inflammation and itching – as well as moderate and serious allergic reactions – such as anaphylaxis, and delayed hypersensitivity – including systemic toxic reactions, coagulopathy, acute renal failure and hepatotoxicity [1, 2]. Wasp venom contains many biological active compounds [3, 4]. The major allergens are phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase (HAase) and antigen 5 [5–8].
Venom HAase is an enzyme that hydrolyses hyaluronic acid (HA), one of the primary components of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, which facilitates venom toxin diffusion into the tissue and blood circulation of the prey [9, 10]. HAase mainly acts as a “spreading factor” to enhance venom action. It has been identified in the venom of animals including snakes, bees, scorpions, fish, spiders, ants, wasps, caterpillars etc. [11–16]. Clinical studies have demonstrated that HAase is an “allergic factor” due to its ability to initiate pathogenic reactions in the majority of venom allergic patients [17–19]. It is also able to induce several anaphylactic IgE-mediated reactions in humans and has been suggested to be involved in the difficulties in the clinical diagnosis of venom allergic individuals [20–22]. The wasp venom HAase belongs to the hyaluronate glycanohydrolase family (EC 22.214.171.124), which degrades hyaluronic acid (HA) [23, 24]. Wasp venom HAase is responsible for the cross-reactivity of wasp and bee venom sera in patients as well [2, 25].
The greater banded wasp (Vespa tropica) is mostly distributed in the forest throughout Indochina peninsula including Thailand. It has a body length of up to 5 cm and its nest is usually found underground . V. tropica is among the most venomous known insects. The lethal dose of its pure venom in experimental animals (LD50 of approximately 2.8 mg/kg in mice) is more potent than that of V. affinis venom [26, 27]. The potency of V. tropica venom has been reported to nearly stop the end plate potentials of Drosophila larvae in nerve-muscle preparation in response to treatment with this venom . HAase was reported to be a major protein in V. tropica venom, where it is found by 2.5-fold the proportion observed in V. affinis venom . The understanding of HAase in terms of biochemical and structural characterization of these wasps is important for the development of new tools for treating multiple stings and for diagnosis and therapy of allergic reactions caused by this venom. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize HAase isoforms in the venom of V. tropica by analyzing its sequence and 3D modelling.
The wasps were collected from Siang Sao Village, Sri Songkram district, Nakorn Panom Province, northeastern Thailand . The worker wasps were immediately shocked on ice. The venom reservoirs were removed from the sting apparatus by removing them from the bodies with forceps and squeezing. The droplets of venom and specimens of V. tropica were collected in a 1.5-mL microcentrifuge tube and then keep at −80 °C until use.
RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ and 3′ RACE)
Primer design of gene-specific primers and PCR product size
Product size (bp)
Full nucleotide sequence active form
F4 GCCAGACTTTTCATGGAGGA (GSP1 for active)
R3 (7) ATCAGGGGTCAGTTCACGTC (GSP1 for active)
Adaptor primer (AP)
5′GGCCACGCGTCGACTAGTAC (T) 16
(GSP for cDNA synthesis of 3′ RACE system)
R4 (8) CGTCGGTCTCGGTAAGAAAA
Abridged universal amplification primer (AUAP)
R5 (9) GTTCTCGTGCATCGCTGTAA
VesT2a (F) NcoI
VesT2a (R) XhoI
Full nucleotide sequence inactive form
(GSP for RT-PCR inactive form)
R1 CATCTTGTCGTTCTCGCTCA (GSP for RT-PCR inactive form)
F2 CTTCGGCGTCTATTTCAAGG (GSP for RT-PCR inactive form)
R2CCGCTAAGACAGTGGGGATA (GSP for inactive form)
Adaptor primer (AP)
5′GGCCACGCGTCGACTAGTAC (T) 16
(GSP for cDNA synthesis of 3′ RACE system)
R2 (1) CATCTTGTCGTTCTCGCTCA (GSP for RT-PCR inactive form)
Abridged universal amplification primer (AUAP)
R1 (2) CCGCTAAGACAGTGGGGATA (GSP for inactive form)
Sequence analysis and structure modelling
The basic characterizations of the gene and protein sequences were analyzed using NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Database/index.html) and the basic local alignment search tool BLAST (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/). The phylogenic tree was created using CLUSTAL-X software analysis using the Neighbour-Joining method . The three-dimensional models were created using the SWISS-MODEL program, the automated protein homology modelling template at ExPASY (Switzerland) and a template search with the Alignment Mode program from the protein database (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/) [31, 32]. The model was elucidated as a PDB file, and the structure was previewed and analyzed using Swiss-Pdb Viewer Deep View v4 software (http://www.expasy.org/). The molecular mass and isoelectric points were computed using the Compute pI/MW tool of ExPASy Bioinformatics (http://web.expasy.org/compute_pi/). The N-glycosylation sites were predicted using the CBS prediction severs (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetNGlyc/) and compared with other wasp and bee venom HAases.
Zymographic HAase activity assay
The V. tropica venom HAase activity was detected using 10 % SDS-PAGE containing hyaluronic acid as a substrate. Proteins were separated at 15 mA. The gel was incubated in 3 % Triton X-100 for 1 h with agitation in order to remove SDS and then transferred to the HAase assay buffer (0.15 M NaCl in 0.1 M formate buffer), rinsed twice with assay buffer, and then incubated on a rotating shaker for 16 h at 37 °C. The gels were rinsed twice with distilled water and stained in 0.5 % Alcian blue solution for 1 h. The destain was performed with 7 % acetic acid that was changed every 1 h until clear bands appeared on a pale blue background .
Turbidity HAase activity assay
The turbidity HAase method followed the one by Pukrittayakamee et al.  with slight modifications. We mixed 0.5 mg/mL HA and buffer containing 0.15 M NaCl to a final volume of 100 μL and incubated for 30 min at 37 °C. The reaction was stopped using 200 μL of 2 % CTAB containing 2.5 % NaOH. The absorbance was measured at 405 nm. The turbidity reducing activity was expressed as the percentage of remaining HA by taking the absorbance of the tube at 100 % in which no enzyme was added. The optimal pH of the venom HAase was determined by changing the buffers of the enzymatic turbidimetric venom HAase activity assay as follows: 0.2 M formate buffer, pH 2–4; 0.2 M acetate buffer, pH 5–6; 0.2 M Tris–HCl buffer, pH 7–10.
Mouse anti-hyaluronidase serum
The HAase band from zymographic gel were cut and frozen at −70 °C overnight, the gel was freeze-dried and ground. Anesthetized mice were subcutaneously immunized with gel swollen in PBS buffer (135 mM NaCl, 1.5 mM KH2PO4, 2.5 mM KCl, and 8 mM Na2HPO4) emulsified with Freud’s complete adjuvant. Mice were four times boosted with the antigen emulsified with incomplete Freund’s adjuvant. After retro-orbital plexus bleeding, blood was kept at 4 °C for 12 h and centrifuged at 10000 × g for antiserum collection.
Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane (Bio-Rad, USA). After being eletrotransferred, the membrane was incubated with 5 % nonfat dry milk for 1 h, anti-HAase antibody for 1 h and goat anti-mouse IgG linked alkaline phosphatase (1:500) for 1 h. The blotted bands were detected by a substrate kit (GE Healthcare, Sweden). The membrane was intensive washed before the next incubation.
Crickets (Gryllus sp.) were abdominally injected with venom pre-incubated with anti-HAase serum 10 min before considered paralyzed. The paralyzed crickets were defined as those that could return from the overturned position.
Sequence and structural modelling analysis of VesT2s
HAase activity of wasp venom VesT2a
The neutralization assay of V. tropica venom against anti-HAase serum in crickets (Gryllus sp.)
V. tropica venom: Anti-HAase serum (μL/μL)
Neutralized crickets/total crickets after injections with V. tropica venom and anti-HAase serum
In this study, we described the identification, biochemistry, bioactivity and structural characteristics of the HAase from the venom of greater banded wasp V. tropica. This study describes the existence of two isoforms of VesT2s, VesT2a and VesT2b. The primary sequence of VesT2a and VesT2b were clearly isoenzymes with 61.52 % similarity but with different molecular masses and pIs of the mature sequence (357 amino acids/39119.73 Da/pI 8.91 and 337 amino acids/39571.53 Da/pI 9.38, respectively). Mass differences were mainly estimated from amino acid variations, including the degree of glycosylation of VesT2s. However, they were classified into the same family of glycoside hydrolase family 56 by sequence similarity. This phenomenon also occurs with HAases in many species, such asVesV2a and VesV2b, the HAase isoenzymes in Vespula vugaris venom. VesV2a and b share 58 % amino acid identity to each other [5, 20].
Rungsa et al.  indicated that the mass of HAase in V. tropica venom was approximately 43 kDa after analysis by denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis, which was confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting. However, the mature sequence of HAase in this study, VesT2s, was smaller in size, with approximately 39 kDa. The molecular mass of about 43 kDa of native VesT2s was not surprising, since wasp venom HAase is a glycoprotein whose differences in estimated values of theoretical pI and molecular masses are frequent [9, 38, 39].
The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that VesT2a is found in the same cluster of active HAase from insect venoms. VesT2b is also found in a cluster of inactive HAase from insect venoms [2, 20, 35, 38, 40]. The enzyme function of VesT2s is different because of two catalytic residues in VesT2a, Asp107 and Glu109. Both are substituted by Asn in VesT2b that has no HAase enzymatic activity towards various substrates [20, 35, 41]. The less acidic Asn cannot act as a proton donor as the acidic amino acids, Asp and Glu [36, 37].
Glycosylation sites are the most common post-translational modification of many insect venom proteins as they contribute to biological activity, immunogenicity, and solubility, stability and protease resistance. VesT2s represents one of the strongest conserved hymenoptera venom allergens in wasps, yellow jackets and honeybees [42, 43]. VesT2a is highly similar to VesMa2 (Vespa magnifica HAase) while VesT2b is close to VesV2b (Vespula vugaris HAase b). V. vugaris and V. magnifica also belong to the Vespidae family [20, 35, 40]. Therefore, we presume that the VesT2s isoform might have a similar structure and allergic properties.
N-glycosylation in wasp venom HAase. Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr residues represent the possible N-glycosylation sites predicted by NetNGlyc 1.0 Server (N-glycosylation in V. vulgaris and V. magnifica HAase was obtained in the experiment in the native form)
A previous study showed the high potency of V. tropica venom (PD50 ~ 3 μg/g body weight of cricket) . Venom HAase, a “spreading factor”, is well-known for its toxin-enhancing activity. Therefore, the anti-HAase serum was produced. The anti-HAase serum shows neutralizing efficiency against crude venom by ratio the ratio of 1:12 (venom:antiserum). Inhibition of HAase activity not only prevents local tissue damage, but also retards the venom toxin diffusion into the tissues and blood circulation, resulting in the delay of fatal outcomes in several cases . HAase activity may play a vital role in allergenicity and toxicity of venoms.
Hymenoptera venom showed cross-reactivity with bee and wasp venoms . The allergic responses to wasp venom are known to cause life-threatening and fatal IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in sensitive individuals. The cross reactivity among the hyaluronidase from yellow jacket and bee venom are presumably induced by CCDs, but less often shared by peptide epitopes . Knowledge on the structural determinants responsible for the allergic potency is expected to have important clinical implications.
This work was mainly supported by the Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University (NRU) Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission (CHE), through the Food and Functional Food Research Cluster of Khon Kaen University (KKU). It was also partially supported by the “The Thailand Research Fund – Master Research Granted (TRF–MAG)” year 2008 (MRG-WII515S069), “TRF–CHE jointly funded Research Grant for Mid-Career University Faculty”, fiscal years 2007–2009; and KKU Research Fund, fiscal years 2007–2010.
PR conducted most of the experiments, coordinated the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. PI and SS contributed to bioinformatics analyses. NU conducted Western blotting experiments. SK contributed to the study design and writing of the manuscript. JD performed the molecular analyses and contributed to the writing of the manuscript. RP contributed to writing and editing of the manuscript. SR performed the proteomic study. SD designed the research and the experiments, coordinated the study, wrote and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that there are no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The present study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Khon Kaen University based on the Ethics for Animal Experimentation of the National Research Council of Thailand (reference. 05126.96.36.199/1).
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- King TP, Kochoumian L, Joslyn A. Wasp venom proteins: phospholipase A1 and B. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984;230(1):1–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- King TP, Lu G, Gonzalez M, Qian N, Soldatova L. Yellow jacket venom allergens, hyaluronidase and phospholipase: sequence similarity and antigenic cross-reactivity with their hornet and wasp homologs and possible implications for clinical allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;98(3):588–600.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jalaei J, Fazeli M, Rajaian H, Shekarforoush SS. In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2014;20(22):1–6.Google Scholar
- Santos LD, Pieroni M, Menegasso ARS, Pinto JRAS, Palma MS. A new scenario of bioprospecting of Hymenoptera venoms through proteomic approach. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2011;17:364–77.Google Scholar
- King TP, Alagon AC, Kuan J, Sobotka AK, Lichtenstein LM. Immunochemical studies of yellowjacket venom proteins. Mol Immunol. 1983;20(3):297–308.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abe T, Sugita M, Fujikura T, Hiyoshi J, Akasu M. Giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia) venomous phospholipases. The purification, characterization and inhibitory properties by biscoclaurine alkaloids. Toxicon. 2000;38(12):1803–16.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kreil G. Hyaluronidases - a group of neglected enzymes. Protein Sci. 1995;4(9):1666–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sukprasert S, Rungsa P, Uawonggul N, Incamnoi P, Thammasirirak S, Daduang J, et al. Purification and structural characterisation of phospholipase A1 (Vespapase, Ves a 1) from Thai banded tiger wasp (Vespa affinis) venom. Toxicon. 2013;61:151–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Justo Jacomini DL, Campos Pereira FD, Santos Pinto JR A d, dos Santos LD, da Silva Neto AJ, Giratto DT, et al. Hyaluronidase from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae): cloning, structural modeling, purification, and immunological analysis. Toxicon. 2013;64:70–80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bordon KCF, Perino MG, Giglio JR, Arantes EC. Isolation, enzymatic characterization and antiedematogenic activity of the first reported rattlesnake hyaluronidase from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Biochimie. 2012;94(12):2740–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feng L, Gao R, Gopalakrishnakone P. Isolation and characterization of a hyaluronidase from the venom of Chinese red scorpion Buthus martensi. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;148(3):250–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Girish KS, Shashidharamurthy R, Nagaraju S, Gowda TV, Kemparaju K. Isolation and characterization of hyaluronidase a “spreading factor” from Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom. Biochimie. 2004;86(3):193–202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wahby AF, Mahdy e-SM, El-Mezayen HA, Salama WH, Abdel-Aty AM, Fahmy AS. Egyptian horned viper Cerastes cerastes venom hyaluronidase: Purification, partial characterization and evidence for its action as a spreading factor. Toxicon. 2012;60(8):1380–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Magalhães MR, da Silva Jr NJ, Ulhoa CJ. A hyaluronidase from Potamotrygon motoro (freshwater stingrays) venom: isolation and characterization. Toxicon. 2008;51(6):1060–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagaraju S, Devaraja S, Kemparaju K. Purification and properties of hyaluronidase from Hippasa partita (funnel web spider) venom gland extract. Toxicon. 2007;50(3):383–93.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoffman DR, Dove DE, Jacobson RS. Allergens in Hymenoptera venom: XX. Isolation of four allergens from imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) venom. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988;82(5 Pt 1):818–27.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xia X, Liu R, Li Y, Xue S, Liu Q, Jiang X, et al. Cloning and molecular characterization of scorpion Buthus martensi venom hyaluronidases: a novel full-length and diversiform noncoding isoforms. Gene. 2014;547(2):338–45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaneiwa T, Mizumoto S, Sugahara K, Yamada S. Identification of human hyaluronidase-4 as a novel chondroitin sulfate hydrolase that preferentially cleaves the galactosaminidic linkage in the trisulfated tetrasaccharide sequence. Glycobiology. 2010;20(3):300–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jin C, Focke M, Léonard R, Jarisch R, Altmann F, Hemmer W. Reassessing the role of hyaluronidase in yellow jacket venom allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(1):184–90. e1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kolarich D, Leonard R, Hemmer W, Altmann F. The N-glycans of yellow jacket venom hyaluronidases and the protein sequence of its major isoform in Vespula vulgaris. FEBS J. 2005;272(20):5182–90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Justo Jacomini DL, Gomes Moreira SM, Campos Pereira FD, de Zollner RL, Brochetto Braga MR. Reactivity of IgE to the allergen hyaluronidase from Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) venom. Toxicon. 2014;82:104–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seppälä U, Selby D, Monsalve R, King TP, Ebner C, Roepstorff P, et al. Structural and immunological characterization of the N-glycans from the major yellow jacket allergen Ves v 2: The N-glycan structures are needed for the human antibody recognition. Mol Immunol. 2009;46(10):2014–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arming S, Strobl B, Wechselberger C, Kreil G. In vitro mutagenesis of PH-20 hyaluronidase from human sperm. Eur J Biochem. 1997;247(3):810–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jin C, Hantusch B, Hemmer W, Stadlmann J, Altmann F. Affinity of IgE and IgG against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants on plant and insect glycoproteins. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(1):185–90. e2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- King TP, Joslyn A, Kochoumian L. Antigenic cross-reactivity of venom proteins from hornets, wasps, and yellow jackets. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985;75(5):621–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rungsa P, Incamnoi P, Sukprasert P, Uawonggul N, Klaynongsruang S, Daduang J, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of two wasps venom, Vespa tropica and Vespa affinis. Toxicon. 2016;119:159–67.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt JO, Yamane S, Matsuura M, Starr CK. Hornet venoms: lethalities and lethal capacities. Toxicon. 1986;24(9):950–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gawade SP. The effect of venom from the Indian tropical wasp Vespa tropica on nerve - muscle preparations from Drosophila larvae. Toxicon. 1983;21(6):882–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Incamnoi P, Patramanon R, Thammasirirak S, Chaveerach A, Uawonggul N, Sukprasert S, et al. Heteromtoxin (HmTx), a novel heterodimeric phospholipase A2 from Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom. Toxicon. 2013;61:62–71.Google Scholar
- Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol. 1987;4(4):406–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bordoli L, Kiefer F, Arnold K, Benkert P, Battey J, Schwede T. Protein structure homology modeling using SWISS-MODEL workspace. Nat Protoc. 2009;4:1–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arnold K, Bordoli L, Kopp J, Schwede T. The SWISS-MODEL workspace: a web-based environment for protein structure homology modelling. Bioinformatics. 2006;22(2):195–201.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mio K, Stern R. Reverse hyaluronan substrate gel zymography procedure for the detection of hyaluronidase inhibitors. Glycoconj J. 2000;17(11):761–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pukrittayakamee S, Warrell DA, Desakorn V, McMichael AJ, White NJ, Bunnag D. The hyaluronidase activities of some Southeast Asian snake venoms. Toxicon. 1988;26(7):629–37.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kolarich D, Loos A, Leonard R, Mach L, Marzban G, Hemmer W, et al. A proteomic study of the major allergens from yellow jacket venoms. Proteomics. 2007;7(10):1615–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marković-Housley Z, Miglierini G, Soldatova L, Rizkallah PJ, Müller U, Schirmer T. Crystal Structure of hyaluronidase, a major allergen of bee venom. Structure. 2000;8(10):1025–35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Skov LK, Seppala U, Coen JJ, Crickmore N, King TP, Monsalve R, et al. Structure of recombinant Ves v 2 at 2.0 Angstrom resolution: structural analysis of an allergenic hyaluronidase from wasp venom. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006;62(Pt 6):595–604.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu G, Kochoumian L, King TP. Sequence identity and antigenic cross-reactivity of white face hornet venom allergen, also a hyaluronidase, with other proteins. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(9):4457–65.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pinto JR, Santos LD, Arcuri HA, Dias NB, Palma MS. Proteomic characterization of the hyaluronidase (E.C. 188.8.131.52) from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. Protein Pept Lett. 2012;19(6):625–35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- An S, Chen L, Wei JF, Yang X, Ma D, Xu X, et al. Purification and characterization of two new allergens from the venom of Vespa magnifica. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31920.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- El-Safory NS, Fazary AE, Lee C-K. Hyaluronidases, a group of glycosidases: current and future perspectives. Carbohydr Polym. 2010;81(2):165–81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- King TP, Spangfort MD. Structure and biology of stinging insect venom allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2000;123(2):99–106.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- King TP, Wittkowski KM. Hyaluronidase and hyaluronan in insect venom allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;156(2):205–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seismann H, Blank S, Braren I, Greunke K, Cifuentes L, Grunwald T, et al. Dissecting cross-reactivity in hymenoptera venom allergy by circumvention of α-1,3-core fucosylation. Mol Immunol. 2010;47(4):799–808.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hemmer W, Focke M, Kolarich D, Dalik I, Gotz M, Jarisch R. Identification by immunoblot of venom glycoproteins displaying immunoglobulin E-binding N-glycans as cross-reactive allergens in honeybee and yellow jacket venom. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34(3):460–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hemmer W, Focke M, Kolarich D, Wilson IBH, Altmann F, Wöhrl S, et al. Antibody binding to venom carbohydrates is a frequent cause for double positivity to honeybee and yellow jacket venom in patients with stinging-insect allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(6):1045–52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Girish KS, Kemparaju K. The magic glue hyaluronan and its eraser hyaluronidase: a biological overview. Life Sci. 2007;80(21):1921–43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hokputsa S, Jumel K, Alexander C, Harding SE. Hydrodynamic characterisation of chemically degraded hyaluronic acid. Carbohydr Polym. 2003;52(2):111–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar