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  1. Content type: Review

    The aim of this contribution is to bring general information on the classification and in particular on the specific identification of scorpion species dangerous to humans. Several generic groups are taken int...

    Authors: Wilson R. Lourenço

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:21

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  2. Content type: Review

    The current study presents a descriptive chronological survey of the articles published by Césaire Auguste Phisalix and Albert Calmette on snake poison, with the aim of shedding a light on the areas of researc...

    Authors: Rosany Bochner

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:20

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  3. Content type: Case report

    Neurotoxic envenomation following bites by kraits (Bungarus species) is a leading cause of snakebite mortality in South Asia. Over a long time, this had been attributed only to one species, the common krait (Bung...

    Authors: Deb Prasad Pandey, Sanjib Kumar Sharma, Emilie Alirol, François Chappuis and Ulrich Kuch

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:19

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  4. Content type: Research

    Blooms of the saxitoxin-producing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii have been contaminating drinking water reservoirs in Brazil for many years. Although acute effects of saxitoxin intoxication are wel...

    Authors: Felipe Diehl, Patricia Baptista Ramos, Juliane Marques dos Santos, Daniela Martí Barros and João Sarkis Yunes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:18

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  5. Content type: Research

    Sea urchins can be found throughout the Brazilian coast and are reported to be one of the major causes of marine accidents on the shoreline. Although not lethal, these accidents are reported to be extremely pa...

    Authors: Juliana Mozer Sciani, Andrews Krupinski Emerenciano, José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva and Daniel Carvalho Pimenta

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:17

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  6. Content type: Research

    Current diagnostic methods and imaging techniques are not able to differentiate septic and aseptic inflammation. Thus, reliable methods are sought to provide this distinction and scintigraphic imaging is an in...

    Authors: Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Daniel Moreira dos Santos, Natália Gabriela Silva Pinheiro, Raquel Silva Araújo, André Luís Branco de Barros, Jarbas Magalhães Resende, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Maria Elena de Lima and Valbert Nascimento Cardoso

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:16

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  7. Content type: Research

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis that affects dogs and other mammals, including humans. Contact with dogs is a major risk factor for humans. This disease is endemic in several regions of Brazil. The a...

    Authors: Flávio Gonçalves Brito, Helio Langoni, Rodrigo Costa da Silva, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano, Marcia Almeida de Melo and Giselle Souza da Paz

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:15

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Rabies is very common in People’s Republic of China. Each year thousands of people die because of this disease, but rabies diagnosed in pregnancy is very rare.

    Authors: Zhen-Yu Qu, Guo-Wei Li, Qiao-Ge Chen, Peng Jiang, Chang Liu and Alfred Lam

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:14

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  9. Content type: Research

    In Africa, snakebite envenomations are frequently complicated by life-threatening hemorrhagic syndromes. The authors of the present study conducted a prospective analysis at the University Hospital of Parakou ...

    Authors: Blaise Adelin Tchaou, Kofi-Mensa Savi de Tové, Yolande Sissinto-Savi de Tové, Aurélien Tchémaha C. Djomga, Abdou-Rahman Aguemon, Achille Massougbodji and Jean-Philippe Chippaux

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:13

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  10. Content type: Research

    Although considered a public health issue in Senegal, the actual incidence and mortality from snakebite are not known. In the present study, an epidemiological survey was carried out in Kédougou region, southe...

    Authors: Absa Lam, Bouna Camara, Oumar Kane, Amadou Diouf and Jean-Philippe Chippaux

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:9

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  11. Content type: Research

    Snakebite is a common neglected public health issue, especially in poor rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Passive immunotherapy with safe and effective antivenom is the only approved t...

    Authors: Sandrine Gampini, Sonia Nassouri, Jean-Philippe Chippaux and Rasmané Semde

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:10

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  12. Content type: Editorial

    During the 6th International Conference on Envenomation by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa held in Abidjan, from 1 to 5 June 2015, the measures for the management of envenomation were discussed and new r...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Marc Hermann Akaffou, Bernard Kouadio Allali, Mireille Dosso, Achille Massougbodji and Benedito Barraviera

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:11

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  13. Content type: Research

    Snakebites cause considerable death and injury throughout the globe, particularly in tropical regions, and pose an important yet neglected threat to public health. In 2008, the Centre Anti Poison et de Parmaco...

    Authors: Fouad Chafiq, Faiçal El Hattimy, Naima Rhalem, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Abdelmajid Soulaymani, Abdelrhani Mokhtari and Rachida Soulaymani-Bencheikh

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:8

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  14. Content type: Research

    In the Atlantic forest of the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, local population often uses the fruit juice and the aqueous extract of leaves of soursop (Annona muricata L.) to treat Lachesis muta rhombeata ...

    Authors: Caroline Marroni Cremonez, Flávia Pine Leite, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordon, Felipe Augusto Cerni, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Zita Maria de Oliveira Gregório, Rodrigo Cançado Gonçalves de Souza, Ana Maria de Souza and Eliane Candiani Arantes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:12

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  15. Content type: Research

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a major component of the Daboia siamensis venom, which is able to hydrolyse the membrane of various cells. For this reason, the activity of PLA2 was investigated regarding its pharmaceu...

    Authors: Suchitra Khunsap, Orawan Khow, Supranee Buranapraditkun, Sunutcha Suntrarachun, Songchan Puthong and Supatsorn Boonchang

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:7

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  16. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    The Editor of Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases would like to thank all of our reviewers, both external and Editorial Board Members, who have contributed to the journal in Volume ...

    Authors: Benedito Barraviera

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:6

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  17. Content type: Research

    Termicin is an antimicrobial peptide with six cysteines forming three disulfide bridges that was firstly isolated from the salivary glands and hemocytes of the termite Pseudacanthotermes spiniger. In contrast to ...

    Authors: Zichao Liu, Kehua Yuan, Ruopeng Zhang, Xuchen Ren, Xiaolong Liu, Shuhua Zhao and Dingkang Wang

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:5

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  18. Content type: Research

    The interest in commercial use of wild animals is increasing, especially regarding raising of capybaras. Although this wild species is potentially lucrative for the production of meat, oil and leather, it is s...

    Authors: Helio Langoni, Ivone Yumi Kuribara, Ana Paula Ferreira Lopes Correa, Leila Sabrina Ullmann, Gabriela Pacheco Sánchez and Simone Baldini Lucheis

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:4

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  19. Content type: Case report

    The authors report a series of events including the scientific interest for poisonous dendrobates of French Guiana, the human confrontation with the immensity of the evergreen rainforest, the fragility of the ...

    Authors: Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro and Christian Roussilhon

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:3

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  20. Content type: Research

    Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) (FabAV) antivenin is commonly recommended after pit viper snakebites. Because copperhead envenomations are usually self-limited, some physicians are reluctant to use th...

    Authors: Stephen C. Gale, Jo Ann Peters, LaDonna Allen, Robert Creath and Viktor Y. Dombrovskiy

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:2

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  21. Content type: Research

    Apis mellifera venom, which has already been recommended as an alternative anti-inflammatory treatment, may be also considered an important source of candidate molecules for biotechnol...

    Authors: Andreia Vieira Pereira, Gustavo de Barros, Erika Gracielle Pinto, Andre Gustavo Tempone, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi, Lucilene Delazari dos Santos, Sueli Calvi, Rui Seabra Ferreira Jr, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta and Benedito Barraviera

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2016 22:1

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  22. Content type: Research

    Tumor necrosis factor plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as gastric cancer, and an abnormal inflammatory response has frequently been observed in dyspeptic patients. Helicobacter p...

    Authors: Luanna Munhoz Zabaglia, Mariane Avante Ferraz, Weendelly Nayara Pereira, Wilson Aparecido Orcini, Roger Willian de Labio, Agostinho Caleman Neto, Fernanda Wisnieski, Juliana Garcia de Oliveira, Marilia de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão and Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:54

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  23. Content type: Case report

    According to the World Health Organization, snakebites are considered neglected diseases. Bothrops, the genus most frequently implicated in envenomations in Brazil, includes the species B. marajoensis Hoge, 1966,...

    Authors: Pedro Pereira de Oliveira Pardal, Augusto Cezar Jennings da Silva Pinheiro, Cristiane Tarcis Cunha Silva, Paulo Roberto Silva Garcez Santos and Maria Apolônia da Costa Gadelha

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:53

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  24. Content type: Research

    Maintenance of scorpions under laboratory conditions is ideal for long-term venom collection to explore the therapeutic applications of scorpion venom. Collection of venom by electrical stimulation requires a ...

    Authors: Santhosh Kambaiah Nagaraj, Pavana Dattatreya and Thippeswamy Nayaka Boramuthi

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:51

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  25. Content type: Research

    Rabies is an incurable neglected zoonosis with worldwide distribution characterized as a lethal progressive acute encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus. Animal venoms and secretions have long been studied as new...

    Authors: Rene dos Santos Cunha Neto, Hugo Vigerelli, Carlos Jared, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Luciana Botelho Chaves, Andréa de Cássia Rodrigues da Silva, Robson Lopes de Melo, Juliana Mozer Sciani and Daniel C. Pimenta

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:50

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  26. Content type: Research

    The yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is responsible for the highest number of accidents and the most severe scorpion envenoming in Brazil. Although its venom has been studied since the 1950s, it presents a ...

    Authors: Priscila C. Lima, Karla C. F. Bordon, Manuela B. Pucca, Felipe A. Cerni, Karina F. Zoccal, Lucia H. Faccioli and Eliane C. Arantes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:49

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  27. Content type: Research

    American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, and transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Since treatment is based on classical chemotherapeu...

    Authors: Gustavo A. C. Barros, Andreia V. Pereira, Luciana C. Barros, Airton Lourenço Jr, Sueli A. Calvi, Lucilene D. Santos, Benedito Barraviera and Rui Seabra Ferreira Jr

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:48

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  28. Content type: Case report

    We report on a case of potential envenomation caused by multiple bites by the aglyphous opisthodont snake Leioheterodon madagascariensis in the left thumb of a healthy adult man, which is among the most serious s...

    Authors: Bertrand Razafimahatratra, Cynthia Wang, Akira Mori and Frank Glaw

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:47

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  29. Content type: Research

    Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (TsV) contains toxins that act on K+ and Na+ channels and account for the venom’s toxic effects. TsV can activate murine peritoneal macrophages, but it...

    Authors: Andrea Casella-Martins, Lorena R Ayres, Sandra M Burin, Fabiana R Morais, Juliana C Pereira, Lucia H Faccioli, Suely V Sampaio, Eliane C Arantes, Fabiola A Castro and Luciana S Pereira-Crott

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:46

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  30. Content type: Research

    Scorpion stings are an acute health problem in tropical regions. Awareness of this problem is fundamental for establishing preventive interventions, thus prompting the present study to determine the scorpion-s...

    Authors: Alireza Khatony, Alireza Abdi, Tahereh Fatahpour and Farhad Towhidi

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:45

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  31. Content type: Research

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are abundant components of snake venoms that have been extensively studied due to their pharmacological and pathophysiological effects on living organisms. This study aimed to assess the...

    Authors: Cássio Prinholato da Silva, Tássia R. Costa, Raquel M. Alves Paiva, Adélia C. O. Cintra, Danilo L. Menaldo, Lusânia M. Greggi Antunes and Suely V. Sampaio

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:44

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  32. Content type: Review

    Hyaluronidases are enzymes that mainly degrade hyaluronan, the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix. They are involved in several pathological and physiological activities including fertilization...

    Authors: Karla C F Bordon, Gisele A. Wiezel, Fernanda G. Amorim and Eliane C. Arantes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:43

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  33. Content type: Research

    BmK I, a site-3-specific modulator of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), causes pain and hyperalgesia in rats, while BmK IT2, a site-4-specific modulator of VGSCs, suppresses pain-related responses. A stro...

    Authors: Yi-Jun Feng, Qi Feng, Jie Tao, Rong Zhao and Yong-Hua Ji

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:42

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  34. Content type: Research

    Venoms comprise mixtures of numerous bioactive compounds that have a wide range of pharmacologic actions. Toxins from venomous animals have attracted the attention of researchers because of their affinity for ...

    Authors: RK Rajeshkumar, R Vennila, S Karthikeyan, N Rajendra Prasad, M Arumugam, T Velpandian and T Balasubramaniam

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:41

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  35. Content type: Research

    More than 200 Scyphozoa species have been described, but few have been properly studied regarding their chemical and genetic characteristics. Catostylus tagi, an edible Scyphozoa and the sole European Catostylida...

    Authors: Tiago Parracho and Zilda Morais

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:40

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  36. Content type: Short report

    Bonito municipality, known as an area of ecoturism, in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, is also a focus of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases, with cases registered in both human and canine populations. Thi...

    Authors: Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Vânia Lúcia Brandão Nunes, Kleber Augusto Kohatsu, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, Maria Elizabeth Ghizzi Rocca and Edna Aoba Yassui Ishikawa

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:39

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  37. Content type: Research

    Extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is produced by electric power transmission lines and electronic devices of everyday use. Some phenomena are proposed as “first effects” of ELF-EM...

    Authors: Milena Jankowska, Agnieszka Pawlowska-Mainville, Maria Stankiewicz, Justyna Rogalska and Joanna Wyszkowska

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:38

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  38. Content type: Research

    The American trypanosomiasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The disease is widely distributed throughout the American continent, affecting a wide range of hosts, including dogs...

    Authors: Matilde Jiménez-Coello, Karla Acosta-Viana, Eugenia Guzmán-Marín, Alejandra Bárcenas-Irabién and Antonio Ortega-Pacheco

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:37

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  39. Content type: Research

    Millepora alcicornis is a branching hydrocoral common throughout the Caribbean Sea. Like other members of this genus, this species is capable of inducing skin eruptions and blisters wi...

    Authors: Rosalina Hernández-Matehuala, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, Alma Angelica Vuelvas-Solórzano, Alejandro Garcia-Arredondo, Cesar Ibarra Alvarado, Norma Olguín-López and Manuel Aguilar

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:36

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  40. Content type: Review

    Snake venom galactoside-binding lectins (SVgalLs) comprise a class of toxins capable of recognizing and interacting with terminal galactoside residues of glycans. In the past 35 years, since the first report o...

    Authors: Marco A. Sartim and Suely V. Sampaio

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:35

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  41. Content type: Research

    Rabies is very common in People’s Republic of China. Henan province, in the central portion of China, is one of the most densely populated provinces in the entire country. With the new rabies epidemic trend no...

    Authors: Guo Wei Li, Qiao Ge Chen, Zhen Yu Qu, Yao Xia, Alfred Lam, Ding Mei Zhang and Jia Hai Lu

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:34

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  42. Content type: Research

    Snakebites cause considerable human and livestock injuries as well as deaths worldwide, and particularly have a high impact in sub-Saharan Africa. Generating a basic platform of information on the characterist...

    Authors: M. J. Kipanyula and W. H. Kimaro

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:32

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  43. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: Carlos Alberto-Silva, Joyce M. Gilio, Fernanda C. V. Portaro, Samyr M. Querobino and Antonio C. M. Camargo

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:33

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    The original article was published in Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:27

  44. Content type: Research

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CdtV) is one of the most studied snake venoms in Brazil. Despite presenting several well known proteins, its L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) has not bee...

    Authors: Karla C. F. Bordon, Gisele A. Wiezel, Hamilton Cabral and Eliane C. Arantes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:26

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  45. Content type: Research

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of inorganic and organic components, mainly proteins and peptides. Standardization of methods for isolating bioactive molecules from snake venoms is extremely difficult due to...

    Authors: Danilo L. Menaldo, Anna L. Jacob-Ferreira, Carolina P. Bernardes, Adélia C. O. Cintra and Suely V. Sampaio

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:28

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  46. Content type: Research

    The skin secretions of toads of the family Bufonidae contain biogenic amines, alkaloids, steroids (bufotoxins), bufodienolides (bufogenin), peptides and proteins. The poison of Rhinella schneideri, formerly class...

    Authors: Fernando A. P. Anjolette, Flávia P. Leite, Karla C. F. Bordon, Ana Elisa C. S. Azzolini, Juliana C. Pereira, Luciana S. Pereira-Crott and Eliane C. Arantes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:25

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  47. Content type: Review

    Arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). Many accidents are ca...

    Authors: Francielle A. Cordeiro, Fernanda G. Amorim, Fernando A. P. Anjolette and Eliane C. Arantes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:24

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  48. Content type: Short report

    Toad secretions are a source of molecules with potential biotechnological application on a wide spectrum of diseases. Toads from the Rhinella family have two kinds of poisonous glands, namely granular and mucous ...

    Authors: Priscila Y T Shibao, Fernando A P Anjolette, Norberto P. Lopes and Eliane C. Arantes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:30

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  49. Content type: Research

    Activation of the complement system plays an important role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory reactions, and contributes to inflammatory responses triggered by envenomation provoked by Bothrops snakes....

    Authors: Lorena Rocha Ayres, Alex dos Reis Récio, Sandra Mara Burin, Juliana Campos Pereira, Andrea Casella Martins, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Fabíola Attié de Castro and Luciana Simon Pereira-Crott

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2015 21:29

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