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  1. Content type: Research

    Rhinella schneideri, previously known as Bufo paracnemis, is a common toad in many regions of Brazil. Its venom exerts important cardiovascular effects on humans and other animals. Although this toad venom has be...

    Authors: Sandro Rostelato-Ferreira, Cháriston A Dal Belo, Gildo B Leite, Stephen Hyslop and Léa Rodrigues-Simioni

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:30

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  2. Content type: Short report

    The Amazon as a whole is the largest reservoir of arboviruses worldwide, while the Brazilian Amazon hosts the largest variety of arboviruses isolated to date. In this study, the results of an indirect sandwich...

    Authors: Alexandre do Rosário Casseb, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos da Rosa, Livia Medeiros Neves Casseb, Samir Manssor Moraes Casseb, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Érika Dayane Leal Rodrigues and Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:29

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  3. Content type: Research

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of several diseases, including malaria and dengue, and control measures are mostly performed using chemical insecticides. Unfortunately, mosquito resistance to commonly applied...

    Authors: Frances TT Trindade, Ângela A Soares, Andréa A de Moura, Tiago B Rego, Andreimar M Soares, Rodrigo G Stábeli, Leonardo A Calderon and Alexandre de Almeida e Silva

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:28

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Hump-nosed viper bites are frequent in southern India and Sri Lanka. However, the published literature on this snakebite is limited and its venom composition is not well characterized. In this case, we report ...

    Authors: Milinda Withana, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Ariaranee Gnanathasan and Lallindra Gooneratne

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:26

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  5. Content type: Research

    Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection.

    Authors: Virginia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Pamela Merlo Marson, Enio Yoshinori Hayasaka, Cassiano Victoria, Rodrigo Costa da Silva and Hélio Langoni

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:27

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  6. Content type: Research

    Hyaluronate is one of the major components of extracellular matrix from vertebrates whose breakdown is catalyzed by the enzyme hyaluronidase. These enzymes are widely described in snake venoms, in which they f...

    Authors: Letícia Eulalio Castanheira, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Johara Boldrini-França, Fernando PP Fonseca, Flávio Henrique-Silva, Maria I Homsi-Brandeburgo and Veridiana M Rodrigues

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:25

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  7. Content type: Review

    Hump-nosed viper bites are common in the Indian subcontinent. In the past, hump-nosed vipers (Hypnale species) were considered moderately venomous snakes whose bites result mainly in local envenoming. However, a ...

    Authors: Mitrakrishnan Chrishan Shivanthan, Jevon Yudhishdran, Rayno Navinan and Senaka Rajapakse

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:24

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  8. Content type: Review

    The L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) constitute a major component of snake venoms and have been widely studied due to their widespread presence and various effects, such as apoptosis induction, cytotoxicity, indu...

    Authors: Tássia R Costa, Sandra M Burin, Danilo L Menaldo, Fabíola A de Castro and Suely V Sampaio

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:23

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  9. Content type: Research

    The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will alwa...

    Authors: Jafar Jalaei, Mehdi Fazeli, Hamid Rajaian and Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:22

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  10. Content type: Review

    Septic arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joints that is started by an infection whose most common agent is Staphylococcus aureus. In this review we discuss some of the most arthritogenic bacterial facto...

    Authors: Priscila Maria Colavite and Alexandrina Sartori

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:19

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  11. Content type: Research

    With the aim of studying Leptospira spp. infection in sheep herds, blood samples and respective kidney and liver fragments were collected from 100 animals from twenty different properties during slaughter at a me...

    Authors: Priscila Barbante, Fabio H Shimabukuro, Helio Langoni, Virgínia B Richini-Pereira and Simone B Lucheis

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:20

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  12. Content type: Research

    Numerous spider toxins are of interest as tools for neurophysiological research or as lead molecules for the development of pharmaceuticals and insecticides. Direct detection and identification of the interact...

    Authors: Hai Yu, Hui Liu, Yizhong Yan, Zhigui Duan and Xianchun Wang

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:18

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  13. Content type: Research

    Epidemiological investigations have indicated that Helicobacter pylori induces inflammation in the gastric mucosa regulated by several interleukins. The genes IL1B and IL8 are suggested as key factors in determin...

    Authors: Agostinho Caleman Neto, Lucas T Rasmussen, Roger W de Labio, Valdeir F de Queiroz, Marília de AC Smith, Gustavo A Viani and Spencer LM Payão

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:17

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  14. Content type: Research

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly relevant to the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases, such as leishmaniasis. Since various factors may affect the sensitivity of PCR assays, includ...

    Authors: Suênia da Cunha Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Rômulo Pessoa e Silva, Rayana Carla Silva de Morais, Lays Adrianne Mendonça Trajano-Silva, Carlos Gustavo Régis-da-Silva, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho and Milena de Paiva-Cavalcanti

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:16

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  15. Content type: Research

    Calcium channel blockers such as conotoxins have shown a great potential to reduce brain and spinal cord injury. MVIIC neuroprotective effects analyzed in in vitro models of brain and spinal cord ischemia suggest...

    Authors: Karen M Oliveira, Carla Maria O Silva, Mário Sérgio L Lavor, Isabel R Rosado, Fabíola B Fukushima, Luiza Anna FV Assumpção, Saira MN Neves, Guilherme R Motta, Fernanda F Garcia, Marcus Vinícius Gomez, Marília M Melo and Eliane G Melo

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:15

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  16. Content type: Research

    Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of snake physiological status. Although reference ranges are readily available for many snake species, they are lacking...

    Authors: Siba Prasad Parida, Sushil Kumar Dutta and Arttatrana Pal

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:14

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  17. Content type: Research

    The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected fr...

    Authors: Ana Thaise Sousa Linard, Rafaella Moreno Barros, Jorge Alves Sousa and Renner Souza Leite

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:13

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  18. Content type: Research

    Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternat...

    Authors: Bhavya Janardhan, Vineetha M Shrikanth, Kiran K Mirajkar and Sunil S More

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:12

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  19. Content type: Case report

    In the last years, stings of Sclerodermus species in humans have been sporadically reported in Italy. In order to draw attention to these bethylid wasps of medical importance, we report the case of documented Scl...

    Authors: Roberto Amerigo Papini

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:11

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  20. Content type: Research

    Although the hydrozoan Olindias sambaquiensis is the most common jellyfish associated with human envenomation in southeastern and southern Brazil, information about the composition of its venom is rare. Thus, the...

    Authors: Vidal Haddad Junior, Fernando Zara, Sergio Marangoni, Daniela de Oliveira Toyama, Alex Jardelino Felizardo de Souza, Simone Cristina Buzzo de Oliveira and Marcos Hikari Toyama

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:10

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  21. Content type: Short report

    The state of Pará encompasses 26% of Brazilian Amazon where an enormous diversity of arboviruses has been found. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and distribution of hemagglutination-inhibition antibo...

    Authors: Alexandre R Casseb, Andrea V Cruz, Iroleide S Jesus, Jannifer O Chiang, Lívia C Martins, Sandro P Silva, Daniele F Henriques, Livia MN Casseb and Pedro Fernando C Vasconcelos

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:9

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  22. Content type: Review

    This work provides historical context about scorpion studies from the end of the 19th century to the present day. The content is mainly addressed to non-zoologists, working in research fields that embrace scorpio...

    Authors: Wilson R Lourenço

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:8

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  23. Content type: Review

    Snakebite envenoming is a serious public health problem in Central America, where approximately 5,500 cases occur every year. Panama has the highest incidence and El Salvador the lowest. The majority, and most...

    Authors: José María Gutiérrez

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:7

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  24. Content type: Research

    Naja kaouthia, Ophiophagus hannah, Bungarus fasciatus and Calloselasma rhodostoma are four venomous snakes indigenous to Malaysia. In the present study, their proteomic profile by two-dimensional gel electrophore...

    Authors: Jaya Vejayan, Too Lay Khoon and Halijah Ibrahim

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:6

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  25. Content type: Research

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: bl...

    Authors: Audrey Rennó Campos Braga, Hélio Langoni and Simone Baldini Lucheis

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:5

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  26. Content type: Research

    Scorpion envenoming is a public health problem in Brazil, where Tityus serrulatus and T. bahiensis are considered the most dangerous scorpions. They are well adapted to urbanized environments, and there is an inc...

    Authors: Ana Leticia C Dorce, Valquiria AC Dorce and Ana Leonor A Nencioni

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:4

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  27. Content type: Research

    Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of env...

    Authors: Pedro PO Pardal, Edna AY Ishikawa, José LF Vieira, Johne S Coelho, Regina CC Dórea, Paulo AM Abati, Mariana MM Quiroga and Hipócrates M Chalkidis

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:3

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  28. Content type: Research

    Venom hyaluronidase (Hyase) contributes to the diffusion of venom from the inoculation site. In this work, we purified and characterized Hyase from the venom of Vitalius dubius (Araneae, Theraphosidae), a large t...

    Authors: Rafael Sutti, Mariana Leite Tamascia, Stephen Hyslop and Thomaz Augusto Alves Rocha-e-Silva

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:2

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  29. Content type: Research

    Only a few Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals develop severe gastric diseases and virulence factors of H. pylori appear to be involved in such clinical outcomes. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A (dupA) is a ...

    Authors: Weendelly Nayara Pereira, Mariane Avante Ferraz, Luanna Munhoz Zabaglia, Roger William de Labio, Wilson Aparecido Orcini, João Paulo Bianchi Ximenez, Agostinho Caleman Neto, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão and Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2014 20:1

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  30. Content type: Review

    Chagas disease (CD), also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and affects an estimated 8 to 10 million people worldwide. In Latin America, 25 million peopl...

    Authors: Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira and Elaine Cristina Navarro

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:34

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  31. Content type: Research

    Echinometra lucunter is a common American sea urchin responsible for the majority of the marine accidents in Brazil. Although not lethal, these accidents are reported to be extremely painful. Recently, our group ...

    Authors: Juliana Mozer Sciani, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Adriana da Costa Neves and Daniel Carvalho Pimenta

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:33

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  32. Content type: Research

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a low-grade inflammatory disease characterized by hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, chronic anovulation and vascular disorder. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) a...

    Authors: Latifeh Karimzadeh, Mohammad Nabiuni, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani, Hamed Adham, Amir Bagheri and Azar Sheikholeslami

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:32

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects from 6 to 14% of HIV-infected individuals. Concurrent HIV/HBV infection occurs due to the overlapping routes of transmission, particularly sexual and parenteral. HIV-infected pa...

    Authors: Adriane Maira Delicio, Paulo Afonso Martins Abati and Aline Gonzalez Vigani

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:31

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  34. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise ...

    Authors: Marcelo Ribeiro Duarte and Frederico Alcântara Menezes

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:30

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  35. Content type: Review

    Being distant from Brazil’s great natural diversity, from its long tradition in the study of snakebites and from the fact that it is one of the few countries which has a national information system for monitor...

    Authors: Rosany Bochner

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:29

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  36. Content type: Research

    The testis-specific isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) is exclusively expressed in germ cells during spermatogenesis. Although the exact role of tACE in male fertility is unknown, it clearly plays...

    Authors: Joyce M Gilio, Fernanda CV Portaro, Maria I Borella, Claudiana Lameu, Antonio CM Camargo and Carlos Alberto-Silva

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:28

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  37. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance compris...

    Authors: Anjana Silva

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:26

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  38. Content type: Research

    Although honeybee venom (BV) has been reported to induce apoptosis in different types of cancerous cells, its synergistic effects with customary anti-cancer drugs remain largely unknown. In the present study, ...

    Authors: Zahra Safaeinejad, Mohammad Nabiuni and Zahra Nazari

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:25

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  39. Content type: Review

    Only seven types of mammals are known to be venomous, including slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.). Despite the evolutionary significance of this unique adaptation amongst Nycticebus, the structure and function of sl...

    Authors: K Anne-Isola Nekaris, Richard S Moore, E Johanna Rode and Bryan G Fry

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:21

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  40. Content type: Research

    Apis mellifera stings are a problem for public health worldwide, particularly in Latin America due to the aggressiveness of its Africanized honeybees. Massive poisoning by A. mellifera venom (AmV) affects mainly ...

    Authors: Paulo César P Sousa, Teresinha S Brito, Daniel S Freire, Rafael M Ximenes, Pedro Jorge C Magalhães, Helena SA Monteiro, Renata S Alves, Alice Maria C Martins, Daniela O Toyama and Marcos H Toyama

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:24

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  41. Content type: Research

    Leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are diseases with worldwide distribution. Among stray dogs, these zoonoses are facilitated by direct contact with other animal species, by the habit of scavenging g...

    Authors: Márcia Küster de Paula Dreer, Daniela Dib Gonçalves, Isabel Cristina da Silva Caetano, Edson Gerônimo, Paulo Henrique Menegas, Danilo Bergo, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes-Mori, Aline Benitez, Julio Cesar de Freitas, Fernanda Evers, Italmar Teodorico Navarro and Lisiane de Almeida Martins

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:23

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  42. Content type: Research

    The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci is a venomous species from Taiwan whose venom provokes strong hemolytic activity. To understand the hemolytic properties of A. planci venom, samples were collected ...

    Authors: Chi-Chiu Lee, Wann-Sheng Tsai, Hernyi Justin Hsieh and Deng-Fwu Hwang

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:22

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  43. Content type: Research

    The venom of Centruroides limpidus limpidus (Cll) is a mixture of pharmacologically active principles. The most important of these are toxic proteins that interact both selectively and specifically with different...

    Authors: José María Eloy Contreras-Ortiz, Juan Carlos Vázquez-Chagoyán, José Simón Martínez-Castañeda, José Guillermo Estrada-Franco, José Esteban Aparicio-Burgos, Jorge Acosta-Dibarrat and Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:20

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  44. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Letter to Editor of Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins.

    Authors: Marshall D McCue

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:19

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  45. Content type: Case report

    We report three cases of stings by Africanized bees in cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Erythema, subcutaneous edema, necrosis accompanied by skin detachment, and subsequent skin regeneration wer...

    Authors: Saulo Andrade Caldas, Flávio Augusto Soares Graça, Júlia Soares Monteiro de Barros, Márcia Farias Rolim, Tiago da Cunha Peixoto and Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:18

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  46. Content type: Research

    Brazil holds annual nationwide public campaigns to vaccinate dogs and cats against rabies. The presence of rabies antibodies in these animals, which are among the main transmitters of rabies to humans, is a go...

    Authors: Avelino Albas, Miléia Ricci Picolo, Célio Nereu Soares, Hugo Vagner Ulbano Bachega and Mário Hissamitsu Tarumoto

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:17

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  47. Content type: Review

    Stingrays are a group of rays – cartilaginous fish related to sharks – that have whiplike tails with barbed, usually venomous spines and are found around the world, especially the marine species. Despite recen...

    Authors: Vidal Haddad Junior, João Luiz Costa Cardoso and Domingos Garrone Neto

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:16

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  48. Content type: Short report

    The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection.

    Authors: André Antonio Cutolo, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati and Claudio José Von Zuben

    Citation: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 2013 19:15

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